- Emerging trends in Forensic Science with reference to DNA obtained from
archived latent fingerprints
Abhraneel Dev Choudhury
Mohith S Yadav
M.Sc , Jain University
Bangalore – 560002
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the basic unit containing genetic material in all living organisms. DNA is composed of nucleotide bases and sugar-phosphate moiety that gives rise to the double stranded structure of DNA. There are small repetitive sequences of DNA that generally constitute 20% which might reach up to 90% in some cases that constitute the genetic material of higher organisms including humans.These repeated sequences are known as short tandem repeats (STR). Since the year 1986, DNA analysis has been introduced to the criminal justice system and since then several improvements have been done in the field of forensic technology and commercial products allowing for the STR multiplexing from minute levels of template DNA like 100 picograms or less. Due to such sensitivity levels, there has been a great demand for analysis of touch DNA (mixture of corneocytes and sweat gland secretions) where low levels of DNA are often encountered. DNA has been obtained from fingerprints in the past also but there is limited knowledge in the analysis of DNA from the latent fingerprints. Thus it is important to understand the techniques of collection and analytical methods of touch DNA sandwiched between adhesive and paper. Untreated and treated samples can be utilized to compare different biological sampling techniques, swab diluents, DNA extraction techniques, DNA concentration techniques and post amplification and purification methods. Given the low rate of STR typing from touch evidence samples and the unique challenges involved with archived latent fingerprints, it is important to consider alternative methods that can be incorporated into the traditional DNA workflow while simultaneously identifying the most optimal parameters for traditional steps of the workflow. The archived latent fingerprints disassembled and sampled through direct cutting, followed by DNA extraction and concentration increased the odds of obtaining a STR profile. Thus with carefully selected procedures, archieved latent fingerprints can be a viable source of DNA for criminal investigations even for cold and pst conviction cases.
Short tandem repeats, DNA typing, touch DNA, archived latent fingerprints, adhesive tape, paper substrate
Project – 2
“Forensic Investigation of Cheap Liquors in Karnataka: Case Studies”
Mohith S Yadav
M.Sc. Forensic Science
Manish Kumar Mishra
Assistant Professor PG Department of Forensic Science Jain (Deemed to be) University
Abstract: The alcohol drinking causes health, social and financial problems in populations. The usage of alcohol isn’t’ just because of the likes or dislikes but rather thanks to unnecessary things of individual functioning in an extraordinary society. The obvious from research that there are methods available for reducing the harm and, therefore, problems, according to WHO’s collective analysis, unrecorded consumption of alcohol in Karnataka use as about 1% in females and 30% in men. ‘Difficult’ liquors such as arrack, rum, gin, vodka, and whiskey would be the sort of alcohol consumed by roughly 80% of the population. Because alcoholic drinks, either legal or illegal, do not seem to be computed into state statistics, per individual consumption records do not give a picture of alcohol intake. The people who consume a variety of usage, alcohol can range from use, intermittent use usage, poisonous use, harmful use. The effects of alcohol usage go far past the user. Mixing of alcohol with Methanol, Choral Hydrate, Isopropanol, Ethanol compounds, drugs, or other chemicals makes the mix more poisonous. Alcoholics are well-known to suffer from the illness of depression. The effect of depression and alcohol use could be a risk factor for suicides. There are many instances of poisoning and mass deaths after the consumption of alcohol that is illegal. There are many instances of poisoning and mass deaths after the ingestion of alcohol that is illicit. Ethanol is the most commonly encountered alcohol in terms of drink and drive cases and other criminal cases.
Project – 3
“Examination of Skeletal Traumas in Forensic Anthropology: A review study”
Gayathry S B.Sc. (Honors) Forensic Science
Mohith S. Yadav Assistant Professor
The role of Forensic Anthropology is to analyze skeletal remains to establish the
biological profile of an individual. The crucial part is to determine the cause of death. Forensic Anthropologists do this by analyzing the timing of trauma which can be Ante Mortem, Peri Mortem, or Post Mortem, and the mechanism by which the trauma is produced i.e, through Projectile, Blunt force, Sharp Force, or Thermal Trauma. Skeletal Trauma is caused by an injury that an individual sustained or due to some disease. These can vary depending upon the bone, age, or health. Trauma in the skeleton is mostly in the form of fractures. Classification of fractures by gender and age can determine the nature
of accidents or the nature of weapons. For example, The interpretation of skeletal trauma provides information such as the context of the events surrounding death and may infer how the victim died. Sharp force injury examinations can identify toolmark attributes, and fracture pattern analysis provides detail about the impact area.
Full Article Link: http://hustjournal.com/vol502021sep1/